Conjunctive Adverbs: Purpose And Use

Coordinatingand subordinating words 2 : Conjunctive adverbs such ashowever or therefore

►For other types of connectors, see conjunctions.

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Conjunctiveadverbs belong lớn the family of words known as connectors;they are atype of sentence adverb used in order lớn express aparticularrelationship between a first clause and a second clause that follows.In most cases, the two clauses will be separated by a semi-colon (;) .

Conjunctiveadverbs :

These are very similar to lớn subordinating conjunctions. The biggestdifference is that conjunctive adverbs can frequently(but not always) beused in avariety of positions within the subordinate clause,whereassubordinating conjunctions MUSTstvà at the start of the subordinateclause.
Examples:Conjunctiveadverb: the position in the clause is flexibleThey bought a new car; it was howeverstill toosmall for their family.They bought a new car; it wasstilltoo small for their family,howeverThey bought a new car; howeverit was still too small for their family.Theybought a new car; it was still too smallhoweverfortheir family.Subordinatingconjunction; only one position is possibleAlthough theybought a new car, it wasstill too small for their family.
Conjunctive adverbs can express different relations between twoclauses, including addition consequence, comparison, contrast, emphasisor clarification. Here are some of the most comtháng examples

In most cases, aconjunctive adverb will come at the start ofthe clause that itintroduces; however this is not essental, and with most conjunctiveadverbs otherpositions are possible
MoreExamples:They played some music by the Beatles; additionallythey did some songs by Elvis Presley.They played some music by the Beatles;they additionallydid some songs by Elvis PresleyHe"s one of the directors ; accordinglyhe gets a BMW and a miễn phí parking space.He"s one of the directors ; he gets a BMW and amiễn phí parking space accordingly.Youshould have sầu seen the doctor by now; ifnot you shouldmake an appointment.You should have seen the doctor by now; youshould make an appointment ifnot.Yes I loved that cocktail; nevertheless I won’t haveanother one, thankyou!Yes I loved that cocktail; I won’t have anotherone, however!The best students will all get prizes ; certainly you"ll be one of themThe best students will all get prizes ; you"ll certainlybe one of themYou need to lớn work less ; should take a holiday (noother position is possible).


Whilethey are both "connectors", It is important khổng lồ distinguish betweenconjunctive adverbs & subordinating conjunctions, as they are notused in the same way. There are differences at two levels, as thistable shows.

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Secondaryclause.....With a conjunctiveadverbWitha subordinating conjunction
ExamplesAlso,however,therefore, in fact, nevertheless, moreover,so (meaning therefore or andthe same is true for) Although,as,because, before, until, while, since, so* (inthe sense of purpose),so that
Positionof the secondaryclause in the sentenceFixed:Itmust follow themain clauseItcan either precede or follow the mainclause
Positionof the connector(adverb or conjunction) within its clause.Often but not alwaysflexibleFixed: Itmust come at the startof the secondary clause
The case of tooToomeans the same as also,but is used aftertheclause lớn which it applies (examples15 and 16 below). Toocan also be used as an intensifier at the over of asecondary clause introduced by &.Differentmeanings of soSo, as a conjunctive sầu adverb, can either express a consequence(see example 5),as a synonym of therefore or hence,or an additionalaction (seeexample 6 ) , where it is a synonym of as. When so,is used khổng lồ introduce an additional action, it is necessary khổng lồ invert the subject and theauxiliary . The same goes for the negativeequivalent of so, whichis nor. (Examples6 et 7). For sowith the meaning of purpose, see subordinatingconjunctions. For a general overview , see specific page on Uses of So.
MoreExamples:I bought a new shirt; I alsobought some newshoesI bought a new shirt; alsoI bought somenew shoes.I bought a new shirt; I bought some blue suedeshoesalso This is good cheese; besidesit"s madelocally.There"s no more beer,so( or therefore, hence, etc)we"ll have todrink lemonade.I went to lớn San Francisco last summer;so ( or as) did my brother.I didn"t go lớn San Francisco, nordid mybrother.They won the state lottery, thereforethey arenow rather rich.He found the solution; thus he was able tofinish the project in time.He found the solution; he was thus able khổng lồ finishthe project in time.You can crossby ferry; alternativelyyoucan take the Channel Tunnel.They bought a new house; it was howeverstill toosmall for their family.They bought a new house; it wasstilltoo small for their family, however.Stop making that noise, otherwiseI"ll callthe police.John went khổng lồ London; Mary went there tooI saw John and Mary too
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