In order to

IN ORDER + INFINITIVE

Purpose can be expressed with the prepositional phrase in order folllowed by an infinitive sầu clause or that + a clause (almost always with a modal may or might). The prepositional phrase in order is often omitted in informal speech.

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SUBJ + PRED ADJUNCT
NPhường + V PP INFIN / THAT CLS

The doctor operated

in order

khổng lồ save sầu his patient"s life.

that he might save his patient"s life.

A patient stays

in order

khổng lồ get medical care.

that s/he might get medical care.

A nurse visits

in order

khổng lồ check on a patient.

that s/he might check on a patient.


SO + THAT–CLAUSE

Purpose can be expressed with the preposition so folllowed by that + a clause (almost always with a modal can, willor may). Informally, that is omitted. (Do not place a comma before so because it changes the meaning khổng lồ "result".)

SUBJ + PRED ADJUNCT
NP + V PP THAT–CLAUSE

The doctor operated

so

(that) he could save his patient"s life.

A patient stays

so

(that) s/he can get medical care.

A nurse visits

so

(that) s/he can kiểm tra on a patient.


Advanced note: (1) in traditional grammar, "to" is part of the infinitive sầu verb form; however, in linguistic description, "to" is a subordinator related to the entire clause not just the verb (which is base form). (2) In current linguistic mô tả tìm kiếm, a preposition can be complemented by a wide variety of structures.Prep Complements.

Word Categories: N – Noun; V – Verb; Aux – Auxiliary; Adj – Adjective; Adv – Adverb; P –Preposition; Det –Determiner. See Word Categories.

Phrasal Categories: NP – Noun Phrase; VP.. – Verb Phrase; AdjPhường – Adjective sầu Phrase; AdvPhường – Adverb Phrase; PP – Prepositional Phrase; DPhường – Determinative Phrase.

Clausal Categories: Cls – clause; F – finite clause; NF – nonfinite clause: Ger – gerund; Inf – infinitive; PPart – past participle.

Word Functions: Subj–subject; Pred – predicate/predicator; Comp – complement: elements required by an expression to lớn complete its meaning (DO – direct object; IO – indirect object); Adjunct – adjunct: elements not required by an expression to lớn complete its meaning (Subord – subordinator; Coord – coordinator); Supl – supplement: a clause or phrase added onkhổng lồ a clause that is not closely related to the central thought or structure of the main clause.

(Azar 15-1, 19-5)(Huddleston 8§12.2) (Swan 543)

Related page: Showing Cause và Effect vs. Purpose


Infinitive sầu Clause

Introductory Clause

Emphasis Placement


EMPHASIS PLACEMENT

*
An infinitive sầu clause is moved khổng lồ the front of a sentence lớn emphasize the purpose, or as an introductory clause (wording that goes well with the rest of the paragraph. Place a comma after the clause.

To practice typing, I often go lớn the computer lab.

To find information, I always go the library lab.

To get an answer to a difficult problem, I ask my professor.


NORMAL PLACEMENT

*
No comma is used when the infinitive clause is placed after the main clause.

I often go lớn the computer lab to practice typing.

I always go the library lab to lớn find information.

Xem thêm: Ví Dụ Về Thực Tiễn Là Tiêu Chuẩn Chân Lý, Ví Dụ Thực Tiễn Là Tiêu Chuẩn Của Chân Lý

I ask my professor to lớn get an answer lớn a difficult problem.


PURPOSE

When we express purpose, the infinitive is usually followed by a noun or a noun phrase. The actions in the main clause and the infinitive clause occur in the same time frame. Optionally include in order before the infinitive.

MAIN CLAUSE INFINITIVE + NP

Steve enters his office

khổng lồ find his co-workers.

A man walks inkhổng lồ a bar

to get a drink.

The scientist returned to his lab

khổng lồ discover a cure for cancer.

Thepolice roped off the area

to lớn find a bag which might contain a bomb.

We went lớn the station.

khổng lồ catch the train.

The European Union worked out a deal

khổng lồ help Greece"s recovery.


DISCOVERY ¹

When we report an unexpected experience, the infinitive includes khổng lồ see, khổng lồ hear, to smell, khổng lồ find, or lớn discover followed by a clause (finite or nonfinite) with information about the surprising experience. The actions in the main clause and the infinitive sầu clause occur in different time frames.

MAIN CLAUSE INFINITIVE + CLAUSE

Steve enters his office

to find his co-workers talking about him.

A man walks inkhổng lồ a bar

to see a nude woman sitting at the bar. He asks… (joke-telling)

The scientist returned to lớn his lab.

lớn discover everyone had already left

Thepolice roped off the area

only lớn find the bag contained an hãng apple.

We went khổng lồ the station

only khổng lồ see the train leaving! (disappointment)

The European Union worked out a giảm giá khuyến mãi

only khổng lồ hear the Prime Minister could not accept it.


¹ This wording is particularly common in narration và joke telling.

rope off (V) – surround an area with rope, mark an area for no access *The nonfinite infinitival clause is an adjunct clause which can be restated as "and unexpectedly saw / heard / smelled / found / discovered something happening."

Huddleston, Rodney & Geoffrey K. Pullum."Catenative complements, adjuncts, và coordinates: Adjuncts of result." A Student"s Introduction lớn English Grammar, Cambridge UP, 2005, 1224.


Common Mistakes

Errors & Solutions

*

Error & Solution


ERROR

Why did you come here?

I came here for getting a good education.

I came here for to get a good education.

I came here for get a good education.

Why did you throw that bag of potalớn chips away?

"Cuz I"m on a diet. short answer – not a sentence

So that I won"t eat them.

To get rid of it.


SOLUTION

Why did you come here?

I came here in order khổng lồ get a good education. I came here to lớn get a good education.

Xem thêm: Những Câu Chuyện Hài Ngắn - Truyện Cười Ngắn Hay Nhất Thế Giới Mới Nhất 2020

What is an education for?

It"s for opening your mind. Stating Function

(I threw it away) because I"m on a diet. reason

(I threw it away) so that I won"t eat them. purpose

(I threw it away) (in order) to lớn get rid of it.purpose


*Yellow highlighted words are examples of incorrect usage.

( ) – optional content

Also see Pop-Q "Purpose"


Works Cited

Azar, Betty Schrampfer, và Stacy A. Hagen. Understanding và Using English Grammar. 4th ed., Pearson Education, 2009. Huddleston, Rodney D., & Geoffrey K. Pullum. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge UPhường, 2002. Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage. 3rd ed., Oxford UPhường., 2005.